Qawwali originated in dargahs and remains closely associated with it but there is a whole world of Qawwali that exists outside the dargahs, no I am not talking about Bollywood Qawwalis. Qawwali muqabilas are popular in small towns and usually a bit lowbrow in its content and style. It is a Qawwali contest between two groups, if one of the lead singer is a woman then you can easily guess the topic and nature of the performance.
Shareef Parvaz vs. Rukhsana Bano
Not sure about the date or place of this muqabila but brilliant performance by both singers. I must warn about the strong language used in these videos, for a PG-13 Qawwali muqabila see the last video on this page (Yusuf Azad vs. Rashida Khatoon).
THE year was 1935. The union hall of Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) was brimming with students and the atmosphere was electric. A young man in sherwani stands up. He runs his hand through his long locks, and recites his poem ‘Inquilab’ in his own inimitable style –
“KohsaaroN ki taraf se surkh aandhi aayegi Ja-baja aabaadiyoN meiN aag si lag jaayegi Aur is rang-e-shafaq meiN ba-hazaraaN aab-o taab Jagmagaaega watan ki hurriyat ka aaftaab”
[A red storm is approaching from over the mountains
Sparking a fire in the settlements
And on this horizon, amidst a thousand tumults
Shall shine the sun of our land’s freedom] (1)
The hall reverberates with a thunderous applause. Asrar-ul-Haq Majaz was destined for greatness!
The poetic journey
Majaz’s poetry first made its mark in the culturally alive AMU during the early 1930s. His poems ‘Noora’ and ‘Nazr-e-Aligarh’ established him as a popular poet. The girls just loved him.
“NahiN jaanti hai, mera naam tak woh Magar bhej deti hai paighaam tak woh Ye paighaam aate hii rahte haiN aksar Ki kis roz aaoge biimaar hokar”
[She doesn’t even know my name
But still she writes to me
Her letters keep coming to me
“When will you fall sick and visit again?” she asks]
AMU had other great poets, like Ali Sardar Jafri, Jaan Nisar Akhtar and Jazbi, during this period, but Majaz’s popularity overshadowed all his contemporaries.
Majaz finished his graduation at AMU in 1936. The same year Professor Ahmed Shah Bukhari, popularly known as ‘Pitras’ Bukhari, calls Majaz to Delhi. Bukhari made him join the then newly formed All India Radio as the editor of a journal. Majaz named it ‘Awaaz’ and managed it for a while.
Their relationship soured for some reasons and Majaz left the station.
This was also the time when the door of the married woman Majaz loved, closed on him. She was the only woman he ever loved. It left a permanent scar on his psyche. He became a compulsive drinker.
His personal grief merged with his rebel ideas. The result was ‘Awara’ – a masterpiece of the era.
“Shahar ki raat aur maiN naashaad-o-nakaara phiruuN Jagmagaati jaagti saDkon pe awara phiruuN Ghair ki basti hai kab tak dar badar maara phiruuN Aye gham-e-dil kya karoon aye wehshat-e-dil kya karuuN”
[This nightfall in the city, and I wander aimless and sad
On the awake and glittering roads, my aimless wandering, O
How long in the alien city from door to door I go
What do I do, O sad heart, my mad heart] (2)
The poem became an anthem for the revolutionary youth of the time. The word Awara suddenly meant more than just troubled and jobless-
“Le ke ek changez ke haathon se khanjar toD duuN Taaj par us ke damakta hai jo patthar toD duuN Koi tode ya na toDe maiN hii baDhkar toD duuN Ai gham-e-dil kya karoon aye wehshat-e-dil kya karuuN”
[I shall snatch the sword from Changez’s hand and break it apart
The glittering stone in his crown I must hit
Some body else may or may not, but I should break it–
What do I do, O sad heart, my mad heart] (2)
Heartbroken, Majaz came back to Lucknow.
A nationalist to the core, Majaz along with his friends Ali Sardar Jafri and Sibtey Hasan, took out the progressive journal ‘Naya Adab’ from Lucknow . It was established with funds from the CPI in 1939 under the auspices of UPWA (Urdu Progressive Writers’ Association). The journal was the most influential progressive literary monthly of the period, so much that its first three issues actually laid the theoretical foundations of the UPWA movement. (2)
Naya Adab ran for a decade. After its closure, Majaz joined the Harding Library at Delhi as Assistant Librarian. There he collaborated with Fasihuddin Ahmed in editing the literary journal ‘Adeeb’. (3)
Knowing the man
Majaz was a fragile soul, one who could be easily hurt. Being the nice guy he was, Majaz kept quiet even when friends misbehaved with him.
“Awara-va-majnu.N hii pe maukuuf nahiN kuuchh Milne haiN abhi muujh ko Khitaab aur zyaadaa”
[They have not stopped at vagabond and rogue
More praises are on their way for me]
Majaz had a great sense of humour. Once somebody’s poetry didn’t go down well with him. He had this to say – “Don’t worry, when your poems are translated in Urdu then people would recognise your talent.” (4)
Majaz was a rebel poet. His anger against the capitalist system provided the basis for Awara and his hope for a better tomorrow, born out of the socialist ideology of the Soviet Russia, is expressed in the poem ‘Khwab-e-Sehar’-
“Yeh musalsal aafaten, yeh yorishen, yeh qatal-e-aam Aadmi kab tak rahe ohaam-e-baatil ka ghulaam Zehn-e-insaani ne ab ohaam ke zulmaat meiN Zindagi ki sakht toofani andheri raat meiN Kuch nahin tau kam se kam khawab-e-sehar dekha tau hai Jis taraf dekha na tha ab tak udhar dekha tau hai”
[Such struggle, such suffering, such heinour carnage
How long has man been to superstition a slave
Human mind has at last awakened from its heavy sleep
In the stormy night of life, in the superstitious deep
Has at last dreamt a dream of the golden dawn
Looked at last towards the East, where none before had glanced] (5)
The woman in Majaz’s poetry was more than an object of beauty. He wished to see them as crusaders who could revolt against exploitation and injustice.
“Teri neechi nazar khud teri ismat ki muhafiz hai Tu is nashtar ki tezi aazma leti to achha thaa Teri maathe pe ye aanchal bahut hi khoob hai lekin Tu is aaNchal se ik parcham bana leti to achha thaa”
[Your lowered gaze is itself a protector of your purity,
If you now raise your eyes and test the sharpness of it, it would be good.
The cloth covering your head is no doubt a good thing,
But if you make a flag out of it, it would be good] (6)
Majaz was also faint of heart. In the 1946 sectarian riots, Majaz saw a man being killed in Bombay and couldn’t eat for three days. He ran out of the science class the first time he saw a frog on the table. The poet left science altogether after the episode.
His drinking and poetry provided him the vent to his heartbreak. Once Jigar Moradabadi asked him to quit drinking, to which Majaz replied – “You left it just once, I left it several times.” (4)
Josh Malihabadi once said about Majaz, “He wants to capture the entire beauty of the world in one single glance and to drink all wine of the world in one gulp.” (4)
“Is mahfil-e-kaif-o-masti me, is anjuman-e-irfaani me Sab jaam-bakaf baithe hi rahe, hum pee bhi gaye chahlka bhi gaye”
[This gathering of fun and frolic, the erudites all around
All merely sat with the goblets, but I drank to the full]
But who could know the man more than he himself. Majaz the poet summarises the man in his poem ‘Ta’arruf ‘ –
“Khoob pehchaan lo, asraar huuN maiN Jins-e-ulfat kaa talabgaar huuN maiN Ishq hee ishq hai, duniya meri Fitna-e-aql se bezaar huuN maiN”
[Look at me, recognise me well, for I am Asrar
I seek love and longing
My world comprises love and just love
I know not the devil of the intellect] (7)
Path to self-destruction
By the early 1950s Majaz’s mental faculties started deteriorating. His drinking further compounded his misery. It was sheer genius that he still managed to pen poems like, Khawab-e-Sehar, ‘Shaher Nigaar’, and ‘Andheri Raat ka Musafir,’ which reflects on his last ditch attempt to turnaround his messed up life.
His poem ‘Aitraaf’ was his swan song. Majaz lost hope and accepted defeat-
“Wo gudaaz-e-dil-e-marhoom kahaaN se laauN Ab maiN wo jazba-e-maasoom kahaaN se laauN”
[That tender heart, long dead, beats no more
That innocent passion, long gone, excites no more]
In 1952 Majaz went to Calcutta with Doctor Saifuddin Kichlu to attend the All India Cultural Conference. He was just a shadow of his old self. Sardar Jafri gave him five Rupees every evening for a drink. The rest of his drinking sessions were sponsored by visitors at the bar. One day he asked for ten Rupees. When Jafri tried to reason with him he said, “Sardar you’ve a family, a house, and you do poetry. What do I’ve? Now you don’t even allow me to drink!” (4)
Majaz landed in Ranchi’s mental asylum the same year. The poet who never wrote a weak couplet now struggled with verses. This verse recovered from his belongings tells a lot about his mental state – “Woh regzaar-e-khayal me hai kabhi kabhi humkharaam meri.” [That wasteland of thoughts is walking alongside me] (7)
Jafri recalls seeing him last in the December of 1955 when he arrived in Lucknow from Bombay to attend a Student Cultural Conference. Majaz met him at Hazratganj and showered the same love and affection on his old buddy-
“Humdum yahi hai, rahguzar-e-yaar-e-khushkhiraam Guzre haiN laakh baar isi kahkashaN se hum” *
[This slow pace, this path of bliss has been my companion
I have passed this galaxy a million times]
They then went to the conference at Baradari in Qaisarbagh together. Majaz the poet, and person, seems to come alive that night during the mushaira. He recited the following couplet several times to an eager and appreciative audience-
“Bahut mushkil hai duniya ka savarna, teri zulfoN ka pech-o-kham nahi hai Ba-ise-sayle-ghamo-sayle-hawadis, mera sir hai ki ab bhi kham nahi hai”
[I wonder if my life gets sorted out, the way your entangled locks do
A sea of sadness surrounds me, somehow I’m standing tall]
The next day it was 4th of December. Majaz stayed with Jafri and Sahir Ludhyanvi at the hotel. Sahir bought a bottle of fine quality whisky for Majaz. He was made to promise that he won’t drink in the day and won’t go out with his friends. They even locked the bottle inside the almirah on Majaz’s own suggestion. As if he had a premonition of things to come, Majaz told Jafri twice to spend more time with him as he seems not so sure of the future.
Jafri and Sahir reached the hotel late as they had to attend a tea party after the conference. Majaz left during their absence. They searched for him in vain.
Majaz didn’t turn up for the conference on the 5th of December. At five in the evening the fears proved real. Somebody broke the news of Majaz lying faint in the Balrampur Hospital. The conference was postponed. Everybody rushed to the hospital. Majaz had an oxygen mask on him. Doctors showed little hope.
It was the result of a wild night. Majaz’s friends took him to a tavern in Lalbagh where they all drank on the rooftop. One by one they all left. Majaz stayed back into the cold winter night. The next morning the owner informed the police about Majaz. He was taken to the hospital where the doctors diagnosed a brain hemorrhage and pneumonia. He was just 44.
A female fan sharing the name of his beloved sat next to him when Majaz passed away that night. The poet was at peace finally.
Majaz often reached home late or not at all. Aware of this habit his old mother used to leave his food, a packet of cigarettes, and fifty paisa, next to his bed. The rickshaw-pullers of the city, who knew Majaz well, dropped him home and took the fifty paisa coin.
That night everything changed. Majaz’s mother was waiting on the floor next to his bed. Her son was coming back never to leave again.
“Ab iske baad subah hai aur subah-e-nau majaz Hum par khatm shaam-e-ghareeban-e-Lucknow”
[Tomorrow awaits a new dawn
With me ends the darkness of Lucknow]
Like a shooting star, Majaz, in his self-destruction left behind a trail of brilliant compositions that forever illuminates the firmament of urdu poetry. Every time the students and alumni of AMU, like me, sing the university song, at their campus and elsewhere in the world, Majaz comes to life.
“Ye meraa chaman hai meraa chaman, maiN apne chaman kaa bulbul huuN Sarshaar-e-nigaah-e-nargis huuN, paa-bastaa-e-gesuu-sumbul huuN”
And so the great poet lives on, the way he always did – as the cynosure of all eyes!
* Ali Sardar Jafri used this couplet as the title song of his famous television series, Kahkashan, broadcasted on Doordarshan during the early 90s.
(Based on Ali Sardar Jafri’s account in ‘Lucknow ki Paanch Raatein’.)
1 Kuldip Sahil, A Treasury of Urdu Poetry From Mir to Faiz: Ghazals with English Renderings (Delhi: Rajpal & Sons, 2009), 114-119.
2 Geeta Patel, Lyrical Movements, Historical Hauntings: On Gender, Colonialism, and Desire in Miraji’s Urdu Poetry (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001), 111
3 Abida Samiuddin, Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Urdu Literature (New Delhi: Global Vision Publishing House, 2007), 387
4 Ali Sardar Jafri, Lucknow ki Paanch Raatein (New Delhi: Rajkamal Prakashan, 2010), 25-58
5 K. C. Kanda, Masterpieces of Patriotic Urdu poetry (Delhi: Sterlings Publishers Private Limited, 2009), 323-339
6 “Ghazal as a form of Urdu poetry in the Asian subcontinent”, accessed December 5, 2011, http://www.ghazalpage.net/prose/notes/ghazal_urdu.html
7 Rakhshanda Jalil, email message to the author, December 8, 2011.